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让Hadoop跑在云端系列文章 之 克隆虚拟机增加Hadoop节点

让Hadoop跑在云端系列文章,介绍了如何整合虚拟化和Hadoop,让Hadoop集群跑在VPS虚拟主机上,通过云向用户提供存储和计算的服务。

现在硬件越来越便宜,一台非品牌服务器,2颗24核CPU,配48G内存,2T的硬盘,已经降到2万块人民币以下了。这种配置如果简单地放几个web应用,显然是奢侈的浪费。就算是用来实现单节点的hadoop,对计算资源浪费也是非常高的。对于这么高性能的计算机,如何有效利用计算资源,就成为成本控制的一项重要议题了。

通过虚拟化技术,我们可以将一台服务器,拆分成12台VPS,每台2核CPU,4G内存,40G硬盘,并且支持资源重新分配。多么伟大的技术啊!现在我们有了12个节点的hadoop集群, 让Hadoop跑在云端,让世界加速。

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javascript
  • weibo:@Conan_Z
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:

http://blog.fens.me/hadoop-clone-node/

clone-guest

前言

通过虚拟化技术,我们可轻松的增加或删除一台虚拟机。像hadoop技术,安装,配置,运维,管理都很复杂,如果能通过虚拟化技术,降低运维成本,是多么开心的一件事啊!设想一下,如果一个人能够管理1000个hadoop节点,那么小型公司也可以随随便便构建像百度,阿里一样的强大的计算集群环境。世界也许会更奇妙!

当然,本文并不是讲一个人如何管理1000个hadoop节点。但我会介绍一种方式,通过克隆虚拟机来增加Hadoop节点。也许在大家的实践操作中,就能做出一个人运维1000个节点集群的方案。

目录 

  1. 系统环境介绍
  2. 克隆虚拟机
  3. 完成2个节点的hadoop集群

1. 系统环境介绍

我延续上篇文章的系统环境,让Hadoop跑在云端系列文章 之 创建Hadoop母体虚拟机

我们已成功地创建了Hadoop母体虚拟机c1。接下来,我们要用clone的方式创建c2,c3,c4,c5 ,4台克隆虚拟机。

2. 克隆虚拟机

在host中,打开虚拟机管理软件,查看c1的状态。


~ sudo virsh

virsh # list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 5     server3                        running
 6     server4                        running
 7     d2                             running
 8     r1                             running
 9     server2                        running
 18    server5                        running
 42    c1                             running

c1正在运行中,由于c2之前已经创建,我们已c3来举例说明。

创建克隆体c3


~ sudo virt-clone --connect qemu:///system -o c1 -n c3 -f /disk/sdb1/c3.img
ERROR    Domain with devices to clone must be paused or shutoff.

关闭c1,并重新克隆


virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

~ sudo virt-clone --connect qemu:///system -o c1 -n c3 -f /disk/sdb1/c3.img
ERROR    A disk path must be specified to clone '/dev/sdb5'

分区硬盘引入的错误。(无比强大的google,已经找不到对这个错误的解释了)

接下的操作:

  1. 重新启动c1,注释/etc/fstab自动挂载/dev/vdb1的操作(自行解决)
  2. 卸载给c1分配的分区硬盘/dev/sdb5

~ edit c1

<!-- 
<disk type='block' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source dev='/dev/sdb5'/>
<target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x06' function='0x0'/>
</disk>
-->

再次创建克隆体c3


~ sudo virt-clone --connect qemu:///system -o c1 -n c3 -f /disk/sdb1/c3.img
Cloning c1.img                             1% [                               ]  47 MB/s | 426 MB     14:14 ETA
Cloning c1.img                                                                           |  40 GB     08:18

Clone 'c3' created successfully.

给克隆体c3挂载分区硬盘/dev/sdb7,并启动c3


virsh # edit c3

<disk type='block' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source dev='/dev/sdb7'/>
<target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
</disk>

virsh # start c3

virsh # console c3
Connected to domain c3
Escape character is ^]

Ubuntu 12.10 c1 ttyS0

c1 login: cos
Password:
Last login: Wed Jul 10 12:00:44 CST 2013 from 192.168.1.79 on pts/0
Welcome to Ubuntu 12.10 (GNU/Linux 3.5.0-32-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/
New release '13.04' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.

cos@c1:~$

对克隆体c3,有几个地方需要修改:

  1. hostname,hosts
  2. 静态IP
  3. DNS
  4. /dev/vdb1自动挂载
  5. 配置hadoop存储目录权限
  6. ssh自动验证
  7. hadoop的master,slave

1. hostname,hosts


~ sudo hostname c3
~ sudo vi /etc/hostname
c3

~ sudo vi /etc/hosts
127.0.1.1       c3

2. 静态IP


~ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
#iface eth0 inet dhcp
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.32
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1

改完IP后,我们重启一下,用ssh连接。


~ ssh cos@c3.wtmart.com

~ ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 52:54:00:06:b2:3a
          inet addr:192.168.1.32  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::5054:ff:fe06:b23a/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:42 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:33 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:6084 (6.0 KB)  TX bytes:4641 (4.6 KB)

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:2560 (2.5 KB)  TX bytes:2560 (2.5 KB)

3. DNS (内网的DNS)


~ sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 192.168.1.7

~ ping c1.wtmart.com
PING c1.wtmart.com (192.168.1.30) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.30: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.485 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.30: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.552 ms

4. /dev/vdb1自动挂载


~ sudo mount /dev/vdb1 /home/cos/hadoop
~ sudo vi /etc/fstab
/dev/vdb1        /home/cos/hadoop      ext4    defaults 0       0

~ df -h
Filesystem              Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/u1210-root   36G  2.4G   32G   7% /
udev                    2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                   791M  224K  791M   1% /run
none                    5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none                    2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /run/shm
none                    100M     0  100M   0% /run/user
/dev/vda1               228M   29M  188M  14% /boot
/dev/vdb                148G  188M  140G   1% /home/cos/hadoop

5. 配置hadoop存储目录权限


~ sudo chown -R cos:cos hadoop/

~ mkdir /home/cos/hadoop/data
~ mkdir /home/cos/hadoop/tmp

~ sudo chmod 755 /home/cos/hadoop/data
~ sudo chmod 755 /home/cos/hadoop/tmp

6. ssh自动验证


~ rm -rf ~/.ssh/

~ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/cos/.ssh/id_rsa):
Created directory '/home/cos/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/cos/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/cos/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
54:1f:51:5f:5c:1d:ac:8a:9d:8f:fd:da:65:7e:f9:8d cos@c3
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|          . oooo*|
|         . . . o+|
|        .   . . .|
|       .     .   |
|        S o o    |
|         . +     |
|            +   +|
|           . o.=+|
|             .Eo*|
+-----------------+
~ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

~ cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCtIK3+hGeJQOigIN1ydDVpUzFeg/urnX2DaHhuv5ik8bGGDZWmSA+qPWAZQoZFBGqGMTshvMQeksjA2WiINbFpQCGuxSFx5a9Ad0XU8bGDFi+yYfKlp1ROZ+7Jz1+cO4tjrCX4Ncr3nZlddl6Uh/yMYU+iuRQ4Ga7GXgeYoSf7C5vQmzkYija0XNa8wFr0+aeD3hau6s8dWwsw7Dn/xVA3eMqK+4LDGH6dkn6tc6nVyNbzofXdtPOsCkwHpwozwuRBL37LYcmELe+oT/GifWf0Qp4rQD/9ObtHkhKrSW45bRH/WzvkyNxl04dKlIj26zIsh9zjMHF8o0ce+zjUl7aD cos@c3

7. hadoop的master,slave


~ cd /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/conf
~  vi slaves
c1.wtmart.com
c3.wtmart.com

3. 完成2个节点的hadoop集群

重新启动c1节点,配置2个节点的hadoop集群


~ ssh cos@c1.wtmart.com
~ sudo mount /dev/vdb1 /home/cos/hadoop

配置slave


~ cd /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/conf
~  vi slaves
c1.wtmart.com
c3.wtmart.com

DNS (内网的DNS)


~ sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 192.168.1.7

~  ping c3.wtmart.com
PING c3.wtmart.com (192.168.1.32) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.32: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.673 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.32: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.429 ms

交换ssh公钥
复制c3的authorized_keys到c1的authorized_keys


~ scp cos@c3.wtmart.com:/home/cos/.ssh/authorized_keys .
~ cat authorized_keys >> /home/cos/.ssh/authorized_keys

~ cat /home/cos/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCuWCgfB8qSyEpKmUwnXvWtiCbzza1oD8oM3jm3EJzBRivEC/QV3k8v8zOHt2Cf4H6hYIvYHoSMilA2Wqbh1ny/70zcIYrwFiX5QvSjbEfsj7UmvxevxjB1/5F66TRLN/PyTiw3FmPYLkxvTP8CET02D2cgAN0n+XGTXQaaBqBElQGuiOJUAIvMUl0yg3mH7eP8TRlS4qYpllh04kirSbkOm6IYRDtGsrb90ew63l6F/MpPk/H6DVGC23PnD7ZcMr7VFyCkNPNqcEBwbL8qL1Hhnf7Lvlinp3M3zVU0Aet3TjkgwvcLPX8BWmrguVdBJJ3yqcocylh0YKN9WImAhVm7 cos@c1
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDU4sIHWxuyicIwFbRpDcoegDfSaUhmaBTSFSVTd/Uk8w0fTUcERNx9bZrtuiiPsOImvsBy9hN2Au/x36Jp4hO8DFxzqTNBcfD9xcEgOzHGqH7ZC5qMqx3Poy6DzN/rk9t/+wXyNCfR4kRhrPBNiF6gMDMTRQLpKK9VnY0nQ6FvOQ407gMAsyf0Fn31sHZJLtM4/kxsSOEsSNIk1V+gbIxJv2fJ/AON0/iW1zu7inUC/+YvEuTLClnUMzqFb/xKp25XxSV6a5YzThxs58KO5JCRq2Kk/SM0GSmCSkjKImUYDDjmi1P6wbrd4mh/4frQr1DqYyPeHE4UlHXD90agw767 cos@c3

把c1的authorized_keys,再分发给c3


~ scp /home/cos/.ssh/authorized_keys cos@c3.wtmart.com:/home/cos/.ssh/authorized_keys

从c1启动hadoop集群


~ start-all.sh

starting namenode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-namenode-c1.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting datanode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-datanode-c1.out
c3.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c3.wtmart.com:
c3.wtmart.com: starting datanode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-datanode-c3.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting secondarynamenode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-secondarynamenode-c1.out
starting jobtracker, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-jobtracker-c1.out
c3.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c3.wtmart.com:
c3.wtmart.com: starting tasktracker, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-tasktracker-c3.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting tasktracker, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-tasktracker-c1.out

查看c1的进程


~ jps
8861 JobTracker
8486 NameNode
8750 SecondaryNameNode
9123 Jps
9001 TaskTracker
8612 DataNode

查看c3的进程


~ jps
3180 TaskTracker
3074 DataNode
3275 Jps

这样就建立起了,2个节点的hadoop集群。
上面是我们手动操作的过程比较复杂,接下来我们的任务就是写一个自动化的脚本完成上面的操作。

转载请注明出处:

http://blog.fens.me/hadoop-clone-node/

打赏作者

让Hadoop跑在云端系列文章 之 创建Hadoop母体虚拟机

让Hadoop跑在云端系列文章,介绍了如何整合虚拟化和Hadoop,让Hadoop集群跑在VPS虚拟主机上,通过云向用户提供存储和计算的服务。

现在硬件越来越便宜,一台非品牌服务器,2颗24核CPU,配48G内存,2T的硬盘,已经降到2万块人民币以下了。这种配置如果简单地放几个web应用,显然是奢侈的浪费。就算是用来实现单节点的hadoop,对计算资源浪费也是非常高的。对于这么高性能的计算机,如何有效利用计算资源,就成为成本控制的一项重要议题了。

通过虚拟化技术,我们可以将一台服务器,拆分成12台VPS,每台2核CPU,4G内存,40G硬盘,并且支持资源重新分配。多么伟大的技术啊!现在我们有了12个节点的hadoop集群, 让Hadoop跑在云端,让世界加速。

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javascript
  • weibo:@Conan_Z
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:

http://blog.fens.me/hadoop-base-kvm/

clone-base

前言

通过虚拟化技术,我们可轻松的增加或删除一台虚拟机。结合hadoop技术,我们需要先创建一台配置好hadoop环境虚拟机,作为克隆的母体。

非虚拟化安装Hadoop集群,请参考:RHadoop实践系列之一:Hadoop环境搭建

目录

  1. HOST系统环境
  2. 虚拟机资源分配策略
  3. 创建Hadoop母体虚拟机
  4. 配置Hadoop环境

1. HOST系统环境

关于虚拟化的基础知识,请参考:自己搭建VPS系列文章

KVM技术,HOST系统环境:
Linux Ubuntu 12.10 64bit server
24核CPU,48G内存,硬盘:300G(SAS)+1T(SATA)+1T(SATA)


~ uname -a
Linux delta 3.5.0-17-generic #28-Ubuntu SMP Tue Oct 9 19:31:23 UTC 2012 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

~ cat /etc/issue
Ubuntu 12.10 \n \l

~ top
top - 10:54:53 up 2 days, 11:39,  5 users,  load average: 4.50, 4.76, 3.87
Tasks: 345 total,   2 running, 343 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
%Cpu0  :  8.6 us,  1.0 sy,  0.0 ni, 88.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  1.7 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu1  : 14.2 us,  1.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 83.7 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu2  :  7.3 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 91.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.3 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu3  : 10.9 us,  2.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 86.0 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu4  :  4.0 us,  0.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 95.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu5  :  9.8 us,  2.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 87.1 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu6  :  7.3 us,  1.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 91.4 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu7  : 15.6 us,  1.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 82.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu8  :  6.3 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 93.0 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu9  : 14.9 us,  1.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 83.1 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu10 :  6.9 us,  1.0 sy,  0.0 ni, 92.1 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu11 : 18.6 us,  2.1 sy,  0.0 ni, 79.0 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu12 :  1.7 us,  0.0 sy,  0.0 ni, 98.3 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu13 : 18.5 us,  1.0 sy,  0.0 ni, 80.5 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu14 :  2.3 us,  0.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 97.4 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu15 :  1.0 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 98.3 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu16 :  1.3 us,  0.0 sy,  0.0 ni, 98.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu17 :  3.7 us,  0.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 96.0 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu18 :  1.7 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 97.7 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu19 :  1.3 us,  1.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 97.3 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu20 :  3.3 us,  0.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 96.4 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu21 : 36.3 us,  1.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 62.0 id,  0.3 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu22 :  4.9 us,  1.3 sy,  0.0 ni, 93.8 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
%Cpu23 :  4.0 us,  0.7 sy,  0.0 ni, 95.3 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
KiB Mem:  49449836 total, 49219824 used,   230012 free,  8737312 buffers
KiB Swap: 48827388 total,    57944 used, 48769444 free, 21761620 cached

~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5      1952450560  2267023360   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb6      2267025409  2581596160   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb7      2581598209  2896168960   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb8      2896171009  3210741760   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb9      3210743809  3525314560   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb10     3525316609  3904897023   189790207+  83  Linux

2. 虚拟机资源分配策略

hadoop节点
我们准备做5个hadoop节点:c1,c2,c3,c4,c5
c1为namenode,c2,c3,c4,c5作为datanode

硬盘资源分配
其中/dev/sdb2的硬盘为扩充分区,支持6个逻辑分区:sdb5,sdb6,sdb7,sdb8,sdb9,sdb10
每台虚拟机2个CPU,4G内存,硬盘40G(基础空间)+150G(分区硬盘)
c1挂载分区硬盘sdb5
c2挂载分区硬盘sdb6
c3挂载分区硬盘sdb7
c4挂载分区硬盘sdb8
c5挂载分区硬盘sdb9
给虚拟机挂载硬盘,请参考:给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘

IP地址分配:
c1:192.168.1.30
c2:192.168.1.31
c3:192.168.1.32
c4:192.168.1.33
c5:192.168.1.34

DNS映射:bind9服务
c1 IN A 192.168.1.30
c2 IN A 192.168.1.31
c3 IN A 192.168.1.32
c4 IN A 192.168.1.33
c5 IN A 192.168.1.34

hostname
绑定在GUEST中配置/etc/hostname
c1,c2,c3,c4,c5

3. 创建Hadoop母体虚拟机

如何创建虚拟机,请参考:自己搭建VPS系列 之 在Ubuntu上安装KVM

创建c1


~ sudo virt-install --connect=qemu:///system \
--name c1 \
--ram 4096 \
--vcpus=2 \
--os-type=linux \
--os-variant=ubuntuprecise \
--accelerate \
--hvm \
--disk path=/disk/sdb1/c1.img,size=100,bus=virtio \
--location /home/cos/os/u1210 \
--extra-args='console=tty0 console=ttyS0' \
--network bridge=br0,model=virtio \
--graphics none

启动c1


~ sudo virsh
Welcome to virsh, the virtualization interactive terminal.

Type:  'help' for help with commands
       'quit' to quit

virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

#访问c1
virsh # console c1
Connected to domain c1
Escape character is ^]

#登陆c1
Last login: Tue Jul  9 23:41:20 CST 2013 from 192.168.1.79 on pts/0
Welcome to Ubuntu 12.10 (GNU/Linux 3.5.0-32-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/
New release '13.04' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.

cos@localhost:~$

修改IP地址:设置静态IP


~ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
#iface eth0 inet dhcp
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.30
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1

修改hostname,及本地hosts映射


~ sudo vi /etc/hostname
c1

~ sudo vi /etc/hosts
127.0.1.1       c1

注:退出virsh console环境:right-ctrl和-] ,右边ctrl + 减号(-) + 右括号(])

重启c1


virsh # list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 5     server3                        running
 6     server4                        running
 7     d2                             running
 8     r1                             running
 9     server2                        running
 18    server5                        running
 40    c1                             running

virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

命令行登陆访问


~ ssh cos@c1.wtmart.com

#查看本机IP
~ ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 52:54:00:93:02:fa
          inet addr:192.168.1.30  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::5054:ff:fe93:2fa/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:66 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:32 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:10321 (10.3 KB)  TX bytes:4479 (4.4 KB)

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:34 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:2560 (2.5 KB)  TX bytes:2560 (2.5 KB)

4. 配置Hadoop环境

非虚拟化安装Hadoop,请参考:RHadoop实践系列之一:Hadoop环境搭建
当前用户及用户路径


#192.168.1.79计算机IP是host
~ who
cos      pts/0        2013-07-10 11:27 (192.168.1.79)

~ pwd
/home/cos

工作目录

download目录:各种软件包
toolkit目录:软件安装目录
hadoop目录:hadoop的数据存储目录(挂载分区硬盘/dev/sdb5)


~ ls -l
drwxrwxr-x 2 cos cos 4096 Jul  9 21:42 download
drwxrwxr-x 2 cos cos 4096 Jul  9 23:50 hadoop
drwxrwxr-x 7 cos cos 4096 Jul  9 23:31 toolkit

自行下载各种程序包


~ ls -l download/
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   5425171 Jul  8 21:17 apache-ant-1.8.4-bin.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   4873043 Jul  8 21:01 apache-maven-3.0.4-bin.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  48350337 Jul  8 21:15 apache-nutch-1.6-bin.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   7645670 Jul  8 21:02 apache-tomcat-7.0.27.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  62428860 Jul  8 21:13 hadoop-1.0.3.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  48433847 Jul  8 21:17 hbase-0.94.2.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  30195232 Jul  8 20:59 hive-0.9.0.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  85411605 Jul  8 21:05 jdk-6u29-linux-x64.bin
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   6348405 Jul  8 21:01 phpmyadmin353.zip
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  48307928 Jul  8 21:01 pig-0.10.0.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos 121058888 Jul  8 21:10 solr-4.2.0.zip
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   4782922 Jul  8 21:15 sqoop-1.4.2.bin__hadoop-1.0.0.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   2336261 Jul  8 21:17 thrift-0.8.0.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos   2794605 Jul  8 21:02 thrift-0.9.0.tar.gz
-rwxr-xr-x 1 cos cos  16347805 Jul  8 21:18 zookeeper-3.4.4.tar.gz

安装Java,ant,maven到toolkit目录


ls -l toolkit/
drwxr-xr-x  6 cos cos 4096 May 22  2012 ant184
drwxr-xr-x 10 cos cos 4096 Jul  8 21:24 jdk16
drwxrwxr-x  6 cos cos 4096 Jul  9 18:40 maven

配置环境变更


~ sudo vi /etc/environment

PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/home/cos/toolkit/ant184/bin:/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/bin:/home/cos/toolkit/maven3/bin"

JAVA_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16
ANT_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/ant184
MAVEN_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/maven3

CLASSPATH=/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/lib/dt.jar:/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/lib/tools.jar

#加载到当前环境中
~ . /etc/environment

安装hadoop到toolkit目录


~ tar zxvf download/hadoop-1.0.3.tar.gz
~ mv hadoop-1.0.3 toolkit

修改配置文件


~ cd /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/conf

~ vi core-site.xml
<configuration>
<property>
<name>fs.default.name</name>
<value>hdfs://c1.wtmart.com:9000</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hadoop.tmp.dir</name>
<value>/home/cos/hadoop/tmp</value>
</property>
</configuration>

~ vi hdfs-site.xml
<configuration>
<property>
<name>dfs.data.dir</name>
<value>/home/cos/hadoop/data</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>dfs.replication</name>
<value>1</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>dfs.permissions</name>
<value>false</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>dfs.support.append</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
</configuration>

~ vi mapred-site.xml
<configuration>
<property>
<name>mapred.job.tracker</name>
<value>hdfs://c1.wtmart.com:9001</value>
</property>
</configuration>

~ vi master
c1.wtmart.com

~ vi slaves
c1.wtmart.com

配置hadoop环境变量


~ sudo vi /etc/environment

PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/home/cos/toolkit/ant184/bin:/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/bin:/home/cos/toolkit/maven3/bin:/home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/bin"

JAVA_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16
ANT_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/ant184
MAVEN_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/maven3

HADOOP_HOME=/home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3

CLASSPATH=/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/lib/dt.jar:/home/cos/toolkit/jdk16/lib/tools.jar

接下来,我们挂载分区硬盘/dev/sdb5到/home/cos/hadoop
细节说明,请参考:给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘


virsh # edit c1
Domain c1 XML configuration edited.

<disk type='block' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source dev='/dev/sdb5'/>
<target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
</disk>

virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

回到虚拟机查看新的硬盘


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/vdb: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes
4 heads, 4 sectors/track, 19660800 cylinders, total 314572801 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x3b49c6a0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048   314572800   157285376+  83  Linux

#挂载硬盘
~ sudo mount /dev/vdb1 /home/cos/hadoop
~ df -h
Filesystem              Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/u1210-root   36G  2.4G   32G   7% /
udev                    2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                   791M  228K  791M   1% /run
none                    5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none                    2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /run/shm
none                    100M     0  100M   0% /run/user
/dev/vda1               228M   29M  188M  14% /boot
/dev/vdb1               148G  6.7G  134G   5% /home/cos/hadoop

#设置开机自己挂载
~ sudo vi /etc/fstab
/dev/vdb1                         /home/cos/hadoop      ext4    defaults         0       0

ssh无密码登陆


~ ssh-keygen -t rsa
~ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

对hadoop出始化


~ mkdir hadoop/tmp
~ mdkir hadoop/data

~ hadoop namenode -format
Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.

13/07/10 12:03:41 INFO namenode.NameNode: STARTUP_MSG:
/************************************************************
STARTUP_MSG: Starting NameNode
STARTUP_MSG:   host = c1/127.0.1.1
STARTUP_MSG:   args = [-format]
STARTUP_MSG:   version = 1.0.3
STARTUP_MSG:   build = https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/common/branches/branch-1.0 -r 1335192; compiled by 'hortonfo' on Tue May  8 20:31:25 UTC 2012
************************************************************/
Re-format filesystem in /home/cos/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name ? (Y or N) y
Format aborted in /home/cos/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name
13/07/10 12:03:50 INFO namenode.NameNode: SHUTDOWN_MSG:
/************************************************************
SHUTDOWN_MSG: Shutting down NameNode at c1/127.0.1.1
************************************************************/

测试hadoop是否正常运行


~ start-all.sh
Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.

starting namenode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-namenode-c1.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting datanode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-datanode-c1.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting secondarynamenode, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-secondarynamenode-c1.out
starting jobtracker, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-jobtracker-c1.out
c1.wtmart.com: Warning: $HADOOP_HOME is deprecated.
c1.wtmart.com:
c1.wtmart.com: starting tasktracker, logging to /home/cos/toolkit/hadoop-1.0.3/libexec/../logs/hadoop-cos-tasktracker-c1.out

~ jps
1290 DataNode
1729 Jps
1663 TaskTracker
1419 SecondaryNameNode
1535 JobTracker
1167 NameNode

#上传一个本地文件到hdfs
~ vi test.txt
hello world!!

~ hadoop fs -copyFromLocal test.txt /
~ hadoop fs -cat /test.txt
hello world!!

Hadoop母体虚拟机已创建完毕,下面我们就可以以克隆的方式创建Hadoop虚拟节点了。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/hadoop-base-kvm/

打赏作者

给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘

自己搭建VPS系列文章

自己搭建VPS系列文章,介绍了如何利用自己的计算机资源,通过虚拟化技术搭建VPS。

在互联网2.0时代,每个人都有自己的博客,还有很多专属于自己的互联网应用。这些应用大部分都是互联网公司提供的。对于一些有能力的开发人员(geek)来说,他们希望做一些自己的应用,可以用到最新最炫的技术,并且有自己的域名,有自己的服务器。这时就要去租一些互联网上的VPS主机。VPS主机就相当于是一台远程的计算机,可以部署自己的应用程序,然后申请一个域名,就可以正式发布在互联网上了。本站“@晒粉丝” 就使用的Linode主机VPS在美国达拉斯机房。

其实,VPS还可以自己搭建的。只要我们有一台高性能的服务器,一个IP地址,一个路由。可以把一台高性能的服务器,很快的变成5台,10台,20台的虚拟VPS。我们就可以在自己的VPS上面的,发布各种的应用,还可以把剩余的服务器资源租给其他的互联网使用者。 本系列文章将分为以下几个部分介绍:“虚拟化技术选型”,“动态IP解析”,“在Ubuntu上安装KVM并搭建虚拟环境”,“给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘”,“VPS内网的网络架构设计”,“VPS租用云服务”。

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javascript
  • weibo:@Conan_Z
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm-disk/

前言

虚拟机作为灵活配置的服务器主机,给系统运维和管理带来了巨大的便利。CPU,内存,硬盘,网络等的可配置,给了虚拟机非常强大的优势,是物理机不能比拟的。今天讲一下如何给KVM虚拟机增加新硬盘。

kvm-disk

目录

  1. host增加物理硬盘并分区
  2. 通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘
  3. 通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘

1. host增加物理硬盘并分区

HOST作为KVM的宿主计算机,管理所有GUEST虚拟机。我们通过给HOST增加物理硬盘,然后分给GUEST,从而实现给虚拟机硬盘扩容的效果。

如何给计算机增加物理硬盘并分区,请参考:多硬盘分区管理fdisk 文章

查看HOST机的硬盘


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5      1952450560  2267023360   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb6      2267025409  2581596160   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb7      2581598209  2896168960   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb8      2896171009  3210741760   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb9      3210743809  3525314560   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb10     3525316609  3904897023   189790207+  83  Linux

~ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3        37G  3.4G   32G  10% /
udev             24G  4.0K   24G   1% /dev
tmpfs           9.5G  1.1M  9.5G   1% /run
none            5.0M  8.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
none             24G  152K   24G   1% /run/shm
none            100M   28K  100M   1% /run/user
cgroup           24G     0   24G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda2        19G  3.6G   14G  21% /home
/dev/sda4        92M   34M   54M  39% /boot
/dev/sdb1       931G  100G  832G  11% /disk/sdb1
/dev/sdb6       148G  188M  140G   1% /disk/sdb6

下面将进行两个测试:
通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘:通过文件硬盘的镜像/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img
通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘:直接使用分区硬盘/dev/sdb5

2. 通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘

创建文件硬盘的镜像


~ cd /disk/sdb6/
~ sudo qemu-img create -f raw /disk/sdb6/c1d6.img 10G
Formatting '/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img', fmt=raw size=10737418240

~ ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10737418240 Jul  8 16:37 c1d6.img
drwx------ 2 root root       16384 Jul  8 09:03 lost+found/

通过virsh管理工具加载硬盘


~ sudo virsh
Welcome to virsh, the virtualization interactive terminal.
Type:  'help' for help with commands
       'quit' to quit

#查看系统内的虚拟机
virsh # list
Id Name State
----------------------------------------------------
5 server3 running
6 server4 running
7 d2 running
8 r1 running
9 server2 running
12 c1 running

#在这里我们要对c1进行硬盘扩容
virsh # edit c1

#找到硬盘配置(原来的系统硬盘)
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw'/>
<source file='/disk/sdb1/c1.img'/>
<target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x04' function='0x0'/>
</disk>

#增加文件硬盘,vdb
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source file='/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img'/>
<target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x06' function='0x0'/>
</disk>

#保存退出

重启c1虚拟机


#请使用destroy命令,reboot和shutdown不管用。
~ virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

#list找不到c1 
~ virsh # list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 5     server3                        running
 6     server4                        running
 7     d2                             running
 8     r1                             running
 9     server2                        running

#启动虚拟机c1
~ virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

#进入虚拟机c1
~ console c1

在c1中,进行硬盘查检并分区


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/vda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 83220 cylinders, total 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000516aa

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vda1   *        2048      499711      248832   83  Linux
/dev/vda2          501758    83884031    41691137    5  Extended
/dev/vda5          501760    83884031    41691136   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 20805 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/vdb doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root: 38.4 GB, 38394658816 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4667 cylinders, total 74989568 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1: 4294 MB, 4294967296 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 522 cylinders, total 8388608 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

/dev/vdb已经被识别,接下来 分区,格式化,挂载,使用

硬盘分区


~ sudo fdisk /dev/vdb

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/vdb: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 312076 cylinders, total 314572801 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x3b49c6a0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
Using default value 1
First sector (2048-314572800, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-314572800, default 314572800):
Using default value 314572800

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

#分区生效
~ sudo partprobe

~ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
2 heads, 17 sectors/track, 616809 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf0432cd6

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

格式化


~ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/vdb1
mke2fs 1.42.5 (29-Jul-2012)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
9830400 inodes, 39321344 blocks
1966067 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
1200 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

挂载


~ sudo mount /dev/vdb1 /home/cos/hadoopb

~ df -h
Filesystem              Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/u1210-root   36G  1.1G   33G   4% /
udev                    2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                   791M  232K  791M   1% /run
none                    5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none                    2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /run/shm
none                    100M     0  100M   0% /run/user
/dev/vda1               228M   29M  188M  14% /boot
/dev/vdb1               9.9G  151M  9.2G   2% /home/cos/hadoopb

使用
/home/cos/hadoopb的目录,已经挂载到了/dev/vdb1上面,我可以在hadoopb下载做任何的操作。

3. 通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘

直接使用HOST的分区硬盘/dev/sdb5,做个虚拟机c1的分区


virsh # edit c1

#新增新硬盘vbc
<disk type='block' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source dev='/dev/sdb5'/>
<target dev='vbc' bus='virtio'/>
</disk>

virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

virsh # console c1

登陆虚拟c1,查看硬盘信息


sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for cos:

Disk /dev/vda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 83220 cylinders, total 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000516aa

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vda1   *        2048      499711      248832   83  Linux
/dev/vda2          501758    83884031    41691137    5  Extended
/dev/vda5          501760    83884031    41691136   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
2 heads, 17 sectors/track, 616809 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf0432cd6

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

Disk /dev/vdc: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes
4 heads, 4 sectors/track, 19660800 cylinders, total 314572801 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x3b49c6a0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdc1            2048   314572800   157285376+  83  Linux

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root: 38.4 GB, 38394658816 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4667 cylinders, total 74989568 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1: 4294 MB, 4294967296 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 522 cylinders, total 8388608 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

已经被正确识别
Disk /dev/vdc: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes

接下来,可以参考上面类似的过程,分区,格式化,挂载,使用。

我们直接使用硬件分区,比分区的映射文件会更有效果。

我的方法可能不是最优的,我只是记录我的一些操作和体会,欢迎同学留言给我建议。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm-disk/

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自己搭建VPS系列 之 在Ubuntu上安装KVM并搭建虚拟环境

vps-kvm

自己搭建VPS系列文章

自己搭建VPS系列文章,介绍了如何利用自己的计算机资源,通过虚拟化技术搭建VPS。

在互联网2.0时代,每个人都有自己的博客,还有很多专属于自己的互联网应用。这些应用大部分都是互联网公司提供的。对于一些有能力的开发人员(geek)来说,他们希望做一些自己的应用,可以用到最新最炫的技术,并且有自己的域名,有自己的服务器。这时就要去租一些互联网上的VPS主机。VPS主机就相当于是一台远程的计算机,可以部署自己的应用程序,然后申请一个域名,就可以正式发布在互联网上了。本站“@晒粉丝” 就使用的Linode主机VPS在美国达拉斯机房。

其实,VPS还可以自己搭建的。只要我们有一台高性能的服务器,一个IP地址,一个路由。可以把一台高性能的服务器,很快的变成5台,10台,20台的虚拟VPS。我们就可以在自己的VPS上面的,发布各种的应用,还可以把剩余的服务器资源租给其他的互联网使用者。 本系列文章将分为以下几个部分介绍:“虚拟化技术选型”,“动态IP解析”,“在Ubuntu上安装KVM并搭建虚拟环境”,“VPS内网的网络架构设计”,“VPS租用云服务”。

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javacript
  • weibo:@Conan_Z
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:

http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm/

 

第二篇 在Ubuntu上安装KVM并搭建虚拟环境,分为4个章节

  1. 环境准备
  2. 安装KVM软件
  3. 配置桥接网卡
  4. 创建虚拟机(Ubuntu, winxp)

1. 环境准备

1)  两台计算机,一台是操作计算机Client, 一台是服务器Server

Client: 笔记本电脑, Win7旗舰版,64位,内网ip: 192.168.1.101

Server(Host): 服务器, Ubuntu 12.04LTS 64位,2核CPU,4G内存,内网ip:192.168.1.10,

 

2) 在server启动时,进入BIOS中开起CPU虚拟化的支持

进入BIOS中,在config –> CPU选项中

  • Intel(R) Virtualization Technology (Enabled)
  • Intel(R) VT-d Feature (Enabled)

不同BIOS菜单稍有不同。

 

3) Server上,先安装Openssh-server,Client才能连接

~ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

Clinet通过Putty回家连接Server。

注:以下的所有操作都通过SSH进行。

 

4) Server系统环境

~ uname -a
Linux conan 3.5.0-23-generic #35~precise1-Ubuntu SMP Fri Jan 25 17:13:26 UTC 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
~ cat /etc/issue
Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS \n \l

 

5) 查看CPU的虚拟化支持

~ egrep 'svm|vmx' /proc/cpuinfo
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts nopl aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx smx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 xsave lahf_lm ida dtherm tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts nopl aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx smx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 xsave lahf_lm ida dtherm tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority

我机器是intel的CPU,可以查看vmx的标识

 

6) Server上,配置ubuntu下载源sources.list,我用的是sohu源。

~ sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security universe
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security universe
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security multiverse
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise main
deb-src http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise main

#更新源
~ sudo apt-get update

 

2. 安装KVM软件

1) Server上,安装KVM及virt管理软件

~ sudo apt-get install kvm qemu
~ sudo apt-get install virtinst python-libvirt virt-viewer virt-manager

在ubuntu上安装,真的很简单。

 

3. 配置桥接网卡

1) 在这里我们使用网卡桥接的方式

~ sudo apt-get install bridge-utils

2) 查看网卡的设置

~ ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:1c:25:a1:99:fc
inet addr:192.168.1.10 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::21c:25ff:fea1:99fc/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:736674 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1098750 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:63783787 (63.7 MB) TX bytes:1540374899 (1.5 GB)
Interrupt:20 Memory:fc200000-fc220000

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:1156 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1156 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:114090 (114.0 KB) TX bytes:114090 (114.0 KB)

virbr0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr be:65:ec:88:86:3d
inet addr:192.168.122.1 Bcast:192.168.122.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

3) 已有的网卡

  • eth0是直接插入网线的以太网卡,
  • lo是本地网络,本机内部资源
  • virbr0是刚才我们装完KVM后,自己生成的虚拟网卡

4) 网卡桥接
我们增加一个叫br0的虚拟网卡,让这个网卡可以和eth0以太网的网卡做桥接

~ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet manual
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
address 192.168.1.10
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
bridge_ports eth0

保存,重起网卡设置

~ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

再查看网卡的设置

~ ifconfig
br0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:1c:25:a1:99:fc
inet addr:192.168.1.10 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::21c:25ff:fea1:99fc/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:91 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:100 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:6260 (6.2 KB) TX bytes:15470 (15.4 KB)

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:1c:25:a1:99:fc
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:605 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:425 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:112441 (112.4 KB) TX bytes:61529 (61.5 KB)
Interrupt:20 Memory:fc200000-fc220000

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:36 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:36 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2100 (2.1 KB) TX bytes:2100 (2.1 KB)

virbr0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 2a:b8:36:cf:cc:c6
inet addr:192.168.122.1 Bcast:192.168.122.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

这个时候eth0,已经没有具体的IP地址。IP地址出在了br0的虚拟网上面。

我们ping一下公网ip,看看是不是通的。

~ ping 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=1 ttl=46 time=51.7 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=2 ttl=46 time=50.8 ms

4. 创建虚拟机

通过virt虚拟机管理软件,创建虚拟机(Guest)。

上传2个安装镜像到Server: u1204.iso, xp.iso

放在/home/conan/os目录下面。

1)创建Guest1, Ubuntu 64位LTS 12.04版本(命令行,无可视化界面)

把u1204.iso文件mount一个目录

~ sudo mount -o loop /home/conan/os/u1204.iso /home/conan/os/ubuntu
~ ls /home/conan/os/ubuntu
boot dists EFI isolinux pics preseed ubuntu
cdromupgrade doc install md5sum.txt pool README.diskdefines

创建虚拟机

~ sudo virt-install --connect=qemu:///system \
--name g1 \
--ram 2048 \
--vcpus=2 \
--os-type=linux \
--os-variant=ubuntuprecise \
--accelerate \
--hvm \
--disk path=/home/conan/os/g1.img,size=6,bus=virtio \
--location /home/conan/os/ubuntu \
--extra-args='console=tty0 console=ttyS0' \
--network bridge=br0,model=virtio \
--graphics none

进入安装界面

lqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqu [!!] Select a language tqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqk
x x
x Choose the language to be used for the installation process. The x
x selected language will also be the default language for the installed x
x system. x
x x
x Language: x
x x
x C x
x English x
x x
x <Go Back> x
x x
mqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqj
<Tab> moves; <Space> selects; <Enter> activates buttons

安装系统

lqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqu [!] Configure the network tqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqk
x x
x Please enter the hostname for this system. x
x x
x The hostname is a single word that identifies your system to the x
x network. If you don't know what your hostname should be, consult your x
x network administrator. If you are setting up your own home network, x
x you can make something up here. x
x x
x Hostname: x
x x
x localhost____________________________________________________________ x
x x
x <Go Back> <Continue> x
x x
mqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqj
<Tab> moves; <Space> selects; <Enter> activates buttons

安装完成

2). 创建Guest2, Ubuntu 64位LTS 12.04版本(通过VNC,有可视化界面)

在server端,我要打开vnc_listen的端口支持

~ vi /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf
#打开注释
vnc_listen="0.0.0.0"

重启virt软件

~ sudo /etc/init.d/libvirt-bin restart
~ netstat -nlt|grep 5900
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:5900 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

我们需要使用到Xming和putty配合,可以让putty远程传输的VNC信号通过Xming显示出来。

在putty里面,我们要修改一下配置。

putty1

putty2

启动Xming软件

xming

执行命令

~ sudo virt-install --connect=qemu:///system \
--name g2 \
--ram 2048 \
--vcpus=2 \
--os-type=linux \
--os-variant=ubuntuprecise \
--accelerate \
--hvm \
--disk path=/home/conan/os/g2.img,size=6,bus=virtio \
--cdrom /home/conan/os/u1204.iso \
--network bridge=br0,model=virtio \
--graphics vnc

xming-1_1

通过Xming显示了VNC的界面,ubuntu安装画面

xming-1_2

安装完成

3. 创建Guest3, Winxp(通过VNC,有可视化界面)

注1:这里的winxp必须安装版,ghost是不行的。

注2:windows的安装,必须要使用VNC界面方式,没有命令直接安装的方法

执行命令

sudo virt-install --connect=qemu:///system \
--name g3 \
--ram 1024 \
--vcpus=1 \
--os-type=windows \
--os-variant=winxp \
--accelerate \
--hvm \
--disk path=/home/conan/os/g3.img,size=4 \
--cdrom /home/conan/os/xp.iso \
--network bridge=br0,model=ne2k_pci \
--graphics vnc

xming-2_1

通过Xming显示了VNC的界面,WinXP安装画面

xming-2_2

安装完成

虚拟机互相通信

我们启动Guest1(ubuntu), Guest3(winxp).

  • Client: ip: 192.168.1.101
  • Server: ip: 192.168.1.10
  • Guest1: ip: 192.168.1.11
  • Guest3: ip: 192.168.1.12

他们都在同一网段,相互可以ping通,也可以相互调用。

如果你实验结果和我一样,那么恭喜你,已经实现了通过KVM搭建自己的VPS过程。

 

错误解决方案

1. 错误代码:

libvirtError: internal error Process exited while reading console log output: char device redirected to /dev/pts/4
Could not access KVM kernel module: Permission denied
failed to initialize KVM: Permission denied
No accelerator found!

解决办法:

~ sudo rmmod kvm_intel
~ sudo modprobe -r kvm_intel
~ sudo modprobe kvm_intel nested=1

 

下一篇文章,将介绍VPS内网的网络架构设计。

 

转载请注明出处:

http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm/

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