在Ubuntu中安装HBase

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转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/linux-hbase-install/

linux-hbase

前言

HBase是Hadoop家族中的一个分布式数据库产品,HBase支持高并发读写,列式数据存储,高效的索引,自动分片,自动Region迁移等许多优点,已经越来越多的被界业认可并实施。

目录

  1. 在Ubuntu中环境准备
  2. HBase安装
  3. Thrift安装

1 在Ubuntu中环境准备

HBase是基于Java开发的运行Hadoop平台上分布式NoSQL数据库软件,HBase没有提供Windows系统安装版本。我在这里也只介绍HBase在Linux Ubuntu系统中的安装。

由于HBase是运行在Hadoop平台上面的,因此我们需要先安装好Hadoop的环境,Hadoop的安装请参考文章:[Hadoop历史版本安装](http://blog.fens.me/hadoop-history-source-install/)

HBase没有提供apt的软件源安装,我们需要自己去官方网络下载HBase软件包进行安装。HBase下载页:http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/hbase/

系统环境:

  • Linux Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS 64bit server
  • Java JDK 1.6.0_45
  • Hadoop 1.1.2

2 HBase安装

2.1 下载HBase


# 通过wget命令下载
~ wget http://www.gaidso.com/apache/hbase/stable/hbase-0.94.18.tar.gz

# 解压HBase
~ tar xvf hbase-0.94.18.tar.gz

# 移动HBase目录到文件夹
~ mv hbase-0.94.18/ /home/conan/hadoop/

# 进入目录
~ cd /home/conan/hadoop/hbase-0.94.18

2.2 配置HBase

2.2.1 修改启动文件hbase-env.sh


~ vi conf/hbase-env.sh

#打开注释
export JAVA_HOME=/home/conan/toolkit/jdk16
export HBASE_CLASSPATH=/home/conan/hadoop/hadoop-1.1.2/conf
export HBASE_MANAGES_ZK=true

2.2.2 修改配置文件 hbase-site.xml


~ vi conf/hbase-site.xml

<configuration>
<property>
<name>hbase.rootdir</name>
<value>hdfs://master:9000/hbase</value>
</property>

<property>
<name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>

<property>
<name>dfs.replication</name>
<value>1</value>
</property>

<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.quorum</name>
<value>master</value>
</property>

<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.clientPort</name>
<value>2181</value>
</property>

<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.dataDir</name>
<value>/home/conan/hadoop/hdata</value>
</property>
</configuration>

复制hadoop环境的配置文件和类库


~ cp ~/hadoop/hadoop-1.1.2/conf/hdfs-site.xml conf/
~ cp ~/hadoop/hadoop-1.1.2/hadoop-core-1.1.2.jar lib/
~ mkdir /home/conan/hadoop/hdata

2.3 启动hadoop和hbase


~ /home/conan/hadoop/hadoop-1.1.2/bin/start-all.sh
~ /home/conan/hadoop/hbase-0.94.18/bin/start-hbase.sh

# 查看hbase进程
~ jps
13838 TaskTracker
13541 JobTracker
15946 HMaster
16756 Jps
12851 NameNode
13450 SecondaryNameNode
13133 DataNode
15817 HQuorumPeer
16283 HRegionServer

2.4 打开HBase命令行客户端访问Hbase


~ bin/hbase shell
HBase Shell; enter 'help' for list of supported commands.
Type "exit" to leave the HBase Shell
Version 0.94.18, r1577788, Sat Mar 15 04:46:47 UTC 2014

hbase(main):002:0> help
HBase Shell, version 0.94.18, r1577788, Sat Mar 15 04:46:47 UTC 2014
Type 'help "COMMAND"', (e.g. 'help "get"' -- the quotes are necessary) for help on a specific command.
Commands are grouped. Type 'help "COMMAND_GROUP"', (e.g. 'help "general"') for help on a command group.

COMMAND GROUPS:
  Group name: general
  Commands: status, version, whoami

  Group name: ddl
  Commands: alter, alter_async, alter_status, create, describe, disable, disable_all, drop, drop_all, enable, enable_all, exists, is_disabled, is_enabled, list, show_filters

  Group name: dml
  Commands: count, delete, deleteall, get, get_counter, incr, put, scan, truncate

  Group name: tools
  Commands: assign, balance_switch, balancer, close_region, compact, flush, hlog_roll, major_compact, move, split, unassign, zk_dump

  Group name: replication
  Commands: add_peer, disable_peer, enable_peer, list_peers, list_replicated_tables, remove_peer, start_replication, stop_replication

  Group name: snapshot
  Commands: clone_snapshot, delete_snapshot, list_snapshots, restore_snapshot, snapshot

  Group name: security
  Commands: grant, revoke, user_permission

SHELL USAGE:
Quote all names in HBase Shell such as table and column names.  Commas delimit
command parameters.  Type  after entering a command to run it.
Dictionaries of configuration used in the creation and alteration of tables are
Ruby Hashes. They look like this:

  {'key1' => 'value1', 'key2' => 'value2', ...}

and are opened and closed with curley-braces.  Key/values are delimited by the
'=>' character combination.  Usually keys are predefined constants such as
NAME, VERSIONS, COMPRESSION, etc.  Constants do not need to be quoted.  Type
'Object.constants' to see a (messy) list of all constants in the environment.

If you are using binary keys or values and need to enter them in the shell, use
double-quote'd hexadecimal representation. For example:

  hbase> get 't1', "key\x03\x3f\xcd"
  hbase> get 't1', "key\003\023\011"
  hbase> put 't1', "test\xef\xff", 'f1:', "\x01\x33\x40"

The HBase shell is the (J)Ruby IRB with the above HBase-specific commands added.
For more on the HBase Shell, see http://hbase.apache.org/docs/current/book.html

2.5 HBase简单命令操作


#创建一个新表student
hbase(main):003:0> create 'student','info'
0 row(s) in 1.2680 seconds

#查看所有的表
hbase(main):004:0> list
TABLE
student
1 row(s) in 0.0330 seconds

#查看student的表结构
hbase(main):005:0> describe 'student'
DESCRIPTION                                                 ENABLED
 'student', {NAME => 'info', DATA_BLOCK_ENCODING => 'NONE', true
  BLOOMFILTER => 'NONE', REPLICATION_SCOPE => '0', VERSIONS
  => '3', COMPRESSION => 'NONE', MIN_VERSIONS => '0', TTL =
 > '2147483647', KEEP_DELETED_CELLS => 'false', BLOCKSIZE =
 > '65536', IN_MEMORY => 'false', ENCODE_ON_DISK => 'true',
  BLOCKCACHE => 'true'}
1 row(s) in 0.1100 seconds

#同student表中插入一条数据
hbase(main):007:0> put 'student','mary','info:age','19'
0 row(s) in 0.0490 seconds

#从student表中取出mary的数据
hbase(main):008:0> get 'student','mary'
COLUMN                   CELL
 info:age                timestamp=1396366643298, value=19
1 row(s) in 0.0190 seconds

#让student表失效
hbase(main):009:0> disable 'student'
0 row(s) in 1.2400 seconds

#列出所有表
hbase(main):010:0> list
TABLE
student
1 row(s) in 0.0310 seconds

#删除student表
hbase(main):013:0>  drop 'student'
0 row(s) in 1.1100 seconds

#列出所有表
hbase(main):014:0> list
TABLE
0 row(s) in 0.0400 seconds

3 Thrift安装

安装完成HBase后,我们还需要安装Thrift,因为其他语言调用HBase的时候,是通过Thrift连接的。

Thrift是需要本地编译的,官方没有提供二进制安装包,首先下载thrift-0.9.1,Thrift下载页:http://thrift.apache.org/download

3.1 下载thrift

下载Thrift有两种方式,直接下载源代码发行包,或者通过git下载源代码,请选择其中一种方式下载。

3.1.1 直接下载源代码发行包 thrift-0.9.1.tar.gz


~ wget http://apache.fayea.com/apache-mirror/thrift/0.9.1/thrift-0.9.1.tar.gz
~ tar xvf thrift-0.9.1.tar.gz
~ mv thrift-0.9.1/ /home/conan/hadoop/
~ cd /home/conan/hadoop/

注:后文中的各种错误,都是这个包引起的

3.1.2 通过git下载源代码


~ git clone https://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/thrift.git thrift-git
~ mv thrift-git/ /home/conan/hadoop/
~ cd /home/conan/hadoop/

为了避免各种出错,建议使用git下载源代码安装

3.2 通过thrift-0.9.1.tar.gz 发行包安装Thrift

Thrift是需要本地编译的,在Thrift解压目录输入./configure,会列Thrift在当前机器所支持的语言环境。

3.2.1 安装Thrift的依赖包


sudo apt-get install libboost-dev libboost-test-dev libboost-program-options-dev libevent-dev automake libtool flex bison pkg-config g++ libssl-dev

如果只是为了连接rhbase,默认配置就可以了。如果除了希望支持rhbase访问,还支持PHP,Python,C++等语言的访问,就需要在系统中,装一些额外的类库。大家可以根据自己的要求,安装对应的软件包并设置Thrift的编译参数。

生成配置脚本


~  ./configure

//省略部分日志输出

thrift 0.9.1

Building C++ Library ......... : yes
Building C (GLib) Library .... : no
Building Java Library ........ : yes
Building C# Library .......... : no
Building Python Library ...... : yes
Building Ruby Library ........ : no
Building Haskell Library ..... : no
Building Perl Library ........ : no
Building PHP Library ......... : no
Building Erlang Library ...... : no
Building Go Library .......... : no
Building D Library ........... : no

C++ Library:
   Build TZlibTransport ...... : yes
   Build TNonblockingServer .. : yes
   Build TQTcpServer (Qt) .... : no

Java Library:
   Using javac ............... : javac
   Using java ................ : java
   Using ant ................. : /home/conan/toolkit/ant184/bin/ant

Python Library:
   Using Python .............. : /usr/bin/python

If something is missing that you think should be present,
please skim the output of configure to find the missing
component.  Details are present in config.log.

我本机的已支持C++, Java与Thrift的通信。

3.2.2 增加Python语言的通信

虽然Python已被显示支持与Thrift但在后面编译过程中,还是缺少一些Python的库,我们需要再增加Python的依赖库

安装Python的依赖包


sudo apt-get install python-all python-all-dev python-all-dbg

3.2.3 增加PHP语言的通信

安装PHP的依赖包


sudo apt-get install php5-dev php5-cli phpunit

生成配置脚本


~  ./configure --enable-thrift_protocol

//省略部分日志输出

thrift 0.9.1

Building C++ Library ......... : yes
Building C (GLib) Library .... : no
Building Java Library ........ : yes
Building C# Library .......... : no
Building Python Library ...... : yes
Building Ruby Library ........ : no
Building Haskell Library ..... : no
Building Perl Library ........ : no
Building PHP Library ......... : yes
Building Erlang Library ...... : no
Building Go Library .......... : no
Building D Library ........... : no

C++ Library:
   Build TZlibTransport ...... : yes
   Build TNonblockingServer .. : yes
   Build TQTcpServer (Qt) .... : no

Java Library:
   Using javac ............... : javac
   Using java ................ : java
   Using ant ................. : /home/conan/toolkit/ant184/bin/ant

Python Library:
   Using Python .............. : /usr/bin/python

PHP Library:
   Using php-config .......... : /usr/bin/php-config

If something is missing that you think should be present,
please skim the output of configure to find the missing
component.  Details are present in config.log.

我们看到Thrift的配置中,增加了对PHP语言的支持。

3.2.4 编译和安装


# 编译Thrift
~ make

//省略部分日志

make[5]: 正在进入目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/lib/php/src/ext/thrift_protocol'
make[5]: *** 没有指明目标并且找不到 makefile。 停止。
make[5]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/lib/php/src/ext/thrift_protocol'
make[4]: *** [src/ext/thrift_protocol/modules/thrift_protocol.so] 错误 2
make[4]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/lib/php'
make[3]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
make[3]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/lib/php'
make[2]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
make[2]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/lib'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
make[1]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1'
make: *** [all] 错误 2

在make生成过程,出现PHP的编译错误。从Thrift的错误列表中,我们可以找到错误描述( https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/THRIFT-2265 ),这是由于Thrift-0.9.1发行包,打包时缺少了PHP扩展文件造成的错误,并在Thrift-0.9.2版本中修复。

所以,我们如果还想继续使用Thrift-0.9.1版本,则不能支持PHP语言。


# 生成配置信息,不包括PHP模块
~ ./configure --without-php_extension

# 编译Thrift
~ make

编译过程中,又出现了C++编译错误。


Makefile:832: 警告:覆盖关于目标“gen-cpp/ThriftTest.cpp”的命令
Makefile:829: 警告:忽略关于目标“gen-cpp/ThriftTest.cpp”的旧命令
/bin/bash ../../libtool --tag=CXX   --mode=link g++ -Wall -g -O2 -L/usr/lib   -o libtestgencpp.la  ThriftTest_constants.lo ThriftTest_types.lo ../../lib/cpp/libthrift.la -lssl -lcrypto -lrt -lpthread
libtool: link: ar cru .libs/libtestgencpp.a .libs/ThriftTest_constants.o .libs/ThriftTest_types.o
ar: .libs/ThriftTest_constants.o: No such file or directory
make[3]: *** [libtestgencpp.la] 错误 1
make[3]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/test/cpp'
make[2]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
make[2]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1/test'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
make[1]:正在离开目录 `/home/conan/hadoop/thrift-0.9.1'
make: *** [all] 错误 2

对于上面的2个编译错误,我决定换成git源代码的版本重新操作。

3.2 通过git源代码安装Thrift

运行安装命令


# 进行thrift-git目录
~ cd /home/conan/hadoop/thrift-git

# 复制0.9.1标签到新分支thrift-0.9.1
~ git checkout -b thrift-0.9.1 0.9.1

# 产生配置脚本
~ ./bootstrap.sh

# 生成配置信息
~ ./configure

# 编译Thrift
~ make

# 安装Thrift
~ sudo make install

走了许多弯路,终于使用git源代码版本安装好了Thrift。

查看thrift版本


~ thrift -version
Thrift version 0.9.1

接下来,我们启动HBase的Thrift Server服务


# 启动HBase的Thrift服务
~ /home/conan/hadoop/hbase-0.94.18/bin/hbase-daemon.sh start thrift
starting thrift, logging to /home/conan/hadoop/hbase-0.94.18/bin/../logs/hbase-conan-thrift-master.out

# 检查系统进程
~ jps
13838 TaskTracker
13541 JobTracker
15946 HMaster
32120 Jps
12851 NameNode
13450 SecondaryNameNode
13133 DataNode
32001 ThriftServer
15817 HQuorumPeer
16283 HRegionServer

我们看到ThriftServer已被启动,后面我们就可以使用多种语言,通过Thrift来访问HBase了,这样就完成了HBase的安装。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/linux-hbase-install/

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