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给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘

自己搭建VPS系列文章

自己搭建VPS系列文章,介绍了如何利用自己的计算机资源,通过虚拟化技术搭建VPS。

在互联网2.0时代,每个人都有自己的博客,还有很多专属于自己的互联网应用。这些应用大部分都是互联网公司提供的。对于一些有能力的开发人员(geek)来说,他们希望做一些自己的应用,可以用到最新最炫的技术,并且有自己的域名,有自己的服务器。这时就要去租一些互联网上的VPS主机。VPS主机就相当于是一台远程的计算机,可以部署自己的应用程序,然后申请一个域名,就可以正式发布在互联网上了。本站“@晒粉丝” 就使用的Linode主机VPS在美国达拉斯机房。

其实,VPS还可以自己搭建的。只要我们有一台高性能的服务器,一个IP地址,一个路由。可以把一台高性能的服务器,很快的变成5台,10台,20台的虚拟VPS。我们就可以在自己的VPS上面的,发布各种的应用,还可以把剩余的服务器资源租给其他的互联网使用者。 本系列文章将分为以下几个部分介绍:“虚拟化技术选型”,“动态IP解析”,“在Ubuntu上安装KVM并搭建虚拟环境”,“给KVM虚拟机增加硬盘”,“VPS内网的网络架构设计”,“VPS租用云服务”。

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javascript
  • weibo:@Conan_Z
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm-disk/

前言

虚拟机作为灵活配置的服务器主机,给系统运维和管理带来了巨大的便利。CPU,内存,硬盘,网络等的可配置,给了虚拟机非常强大的优势,是物理机不能比拟的。今天讲一下如何给KVM虚拟机增加新硬盘。

kvm-disk

目录

  1. host增加物理硬盘并分区
  2. 通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘
  3. 通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘

1. host增加物理硬盘并分区

HOST作为KVM的宿主计算机,管理所有GUEST虚拟机。我们通过给HOST增加物理硬盘,然后分给GUEST,从而实现给虚拟机硬盘扩容的效果。

如何给计算机增加物理硬盘并分区,请参考:多硬盘分区管理fdisk 文章

查看HOST机的硬盘


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5      1952450560  2267023360   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb6      2267025409  2581596160   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb7      2581598209  2896168960   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb8      2896171009  3210741760   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb9      3210743809  3525314560   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb10     3525316609  3904897023   189790207+  83  Linux

~ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3        37G  3.4G   32G  10% /
udev             24G  4.0K   24G   1% /dev
tmpfs           9.5G  1.1M  9.5G   1% /run
none            5.0M  8.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
none             24G  152K   24G   1% /run/shm
none            100M   28K  100M   1% /run/user
cgroup           24G     0   24G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda2        19G  3.6G   14G  21% /home
/dev/sda4        92M   34M   54M  39% /boot
/dev/sdb1       931G  100G  832G  11% /disk/sdb1
/dev/sdb6       148G  188M  140G   1% /disk/sdb6

下面将进行两个测试:
通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘:通过文件硬盘的镜像/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img
通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘:直接使用分区硬盘/dev/sdb5

2. 通过virsh给guest增加文件硬盘

创建文件硬盘的镜像


~ cd /disk/sdb6/
~ sudo qemu-img create -f raw /disk/sdb6/c1d6.img 10G
Formatting '/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img', fmt=raw size=10737418240

~ ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10737418240 Jul  8 16:37 c1d6.img
drwx------ 2 root root       16384 Jul  8 09:03 lost+found/

通过virsh管理工具加载硬盘


~ sudo virsh
Welcome to virsh, the virtualization interactive terminal.
Type:  'help' for help with commands
       'quit' to quit

#查看系统内的虚拟机
virsh # list
Id Name State
----------------------------------------------------
5 server3 running
6 server4 running
7 d2 running
8 r1 running
9 server2 running
12 c1 running

#在这里我们要对c1进行硬盘扩容
virsh # edit c1

#找到硬盘配置(原来的系统硬盘)
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw'/>
<source file='/disk/sdb1/c1.img'/>
<target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x04' function='0x0'/>
</disk>

#增加文件硬盘,vdb
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source file='/disk/sdb6/c1d6.img'/>
<target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x06' function='0x0'/>
</disk>

#保存退出

重启c1虚拟机


#请使用destroy命令,reboot和shutdown不管用。
~ virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

#list找不到c1 
~ virsh # list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 5     server3                        running
 6     server4                        running
 7     d2                             running
 8     r1                             running
 9     server2                        running

#启动虚拟机c1
~ virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

#进入虚拟机c1
~ console c1

在c1中,进行硬盘查检并分区


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/vda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 83220 cylinders, total 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000516aa

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vda1   *        2048      499711      248832   83  Linux
/dev/vda2          501758    83884031    41691137    5  Extended
/dev/vda5          501760    83884031    41691136   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 20805 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/vdb doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root: 38.4 GB, 38394658816 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4667 cylinders, total 74989568 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1: 4294 MB, 4294967296 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 522 cylinders, total 8388608 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

/dev/vdb已经被识别,接下来 分区,格式化,挂载,使用

硬盘分区


~ sudo fdisk /dev/vdb

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/vdb: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 312076 cylinders, total 314572801 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x3b49c6a0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
Using default value 1
First sector (2048-314572800, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-314572800, default 314572800):
Using default value 314572800

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

#分区生效
~ sudo partprobe

~ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
2 heads, 17 sectors/track, 616809 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf0432cd6

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

格式化


~ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/vdb1
mke2fs 1.42.5 (29-Jul-2012)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
9830400 inodes, 39321344 blocks
1966067 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
1200 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

挂载


~ sudo mount /dev/vdb1 /home/cos/hadoopb

~ df -h
Filesystem              Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/u1210-root   36G  1.1G   33G   4% /
udev                    2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                   791M  232K  791M   1% /run
none                    5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none                    2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /run/shm
none                    100M     0  100M   0% /run/user
/dev/vda1               228M   29M  188M  14% /boot
/dev/vdb1               9.9G  151M  9.2G   2% /home/cos/hadoopb

使用
/home/cos/hadoopb的目录,已经挂载到了/dev/vdb1上面,我可以在hadoopb下载做任何的操作。

3. 通过virsh给guest增加分区硬盘

直接使用HOST的分区硬盘/dev/sdb5,做个虚拟机c1的分区


virsh # edit c1

#新增新硬盘vbc
<disk type='block' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw' cache='none'/>
<source dev='/dev/sdb5'/>
<target dev='vbc' bus='virtio'/>
</disk>

virsh # destroy c1
Domain c1 destroyed

virsh # start c1
Domain c1 started

virsh # console c1

登陆虚拟c1,查看硬盘信息


sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for cos:

Disk /dev/vda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 83220 cylinders, total 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000516aa

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vda1   *        2048      499711      248832   83  Linux
/dev/vda2          501758    83884031    41691137    5  Extended
/dev/vda5          501760    83884031    41691136   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/vdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
2 heads, 17 sectors/track, 616809 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf0432cd6

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

Disk /dev/vdc: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes
4 heads, 4 sectors/track, 19660800 cylinders, total 314572801 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x3b49c6a0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdc1            2048   314572800   157285376+  83  Linux

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root: 38.4 GB, 38394658816 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4667 cylinders, total 74989568 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-root doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1: 4294 MB, 4294967296 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 522 cylinders, total 8388608 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/u1210-swap_1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

已经被正确识别
Disk /dev/vdc: 161.1 GB, 161061274112 bytes

接下来,可以参考上面类似的过程,分区,格式化,挂载,使用。

我们直接使用硬件分区,比分区的映射文件会更有效果。

我的方法可能不是最优的,我只是记录我的一些操作和体会,欢迎同学留言给我建议。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/vps-kvm-disk/

打赏作者

多硬盘分区管理fdisk

ubuntu实用工具系列文章

操作系统实用工具系列文章,将介绍基于Linux ubuntu的各种工具软件的配置和使用。有些工具大家早已耳熟能详,有些工具经常用到但确依然陌生。我将记录我在使用操作系统时,安装及配置工具上面的一些方法,把使用心得记录下来也便于自己的以后查找和回忆。

关于作者

张丹(Conan), 程序员Java,R,PHP,Javascript
weibo:@Conan_Z
blog: http://blog.fens.me
email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/linux-fdisk/

fdisk

前言

硬盘是一台计算机的必备硬件之一,计算机如何开始使用硬盘资源就要从硬盘分区说起。开始时,一台计算机只有一块硬盘,在安装Linux Ubuntu时,第一步就是对硬盘进行分区。当我们已经安装操作系统,硬盘空间不够的时候,我们需要增加新的硬盘扩大使用空间,特别是对于虚拟化的主机,这种增加新的硬盘就变得有一些不一样了,要手动进行处理。

我在做测试的走进了一个误区中,一直对subpartition这个概念不太理解,纠结于sdb2p1,sdb2p1这样的分区命名。经过几次测试后,才发现,问题出现是因为对操作系统的不理解,以至于在互联网上都找找不太多相关问题的讨论。下面我就介绍一下,我的误区及如何找到正确的方法。

目录

  1. 分区的基本知识
  2. 新增硬盘分区,走入误区
  3. 完成对新增硬盘分区及挂载

1. 分区的基本知识

a. 硬盘分类及标识:IDE,SATA,SCSI三个大类

硬盘与标识对应关系如下表所示:

装置 装置在Linux内的文件名
IDE硬盘机 /dev/hd[a-d]
SCSI/SATA/USB硬盘机 /dev/sd[a-p]
USB快闪碟 /dev/sd[a-p](与SATA不同)
软盘驱动器 /dev/fd[0-1]
打印机 25针: /dev/lp[0-2]

USB: /dev/usb/lp[0-15]

鼠标 PS2: /dev/psaux

USB: /dev/usb/mouse[0-15]

当前CDROM/DVDROM /dev/cdrom
当前的鼠标 /dev/mouse

上面表格摘自:http://blog.csdn.net/zollty/article/details/7001950

可以看到我现在硬盘有sda标识,物理上是一个SAS硬盘,300G。


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

b. 硬盘构成:磁头(head),磁道(track),磁柱(cylinder),扇区(setor)
在互联网上可以很容易找到解释,我就不细说了。

我们在分区的时修改要能看懂硬盘信息就够了。


Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

硬盘信息:
/dev/sdb,1999.3 GB,255个磁头,63个磁道,243068个磁柱,3904897024个扇区。

c. 硬盘的分区
关于linux硬盘的分区主要分为 基本分区(primary partion)和扩充分区(extension partion)两种,基本分区和扩充分区的数目之和不能大于4个。基本分区可以直接使用但不能再分区。扩充分区必须再进行二次分区才能使用。需要对扩充分区建立逻辑分区(logical partion),逻辑分区没有数量上限制。

所以,对于新增硬盘来说,如果我们只有4个及以下的分区要求,可以直接用基本分区完成。如果1T的硬盘想分成6个区,就需要用扩充分区+逻辑分区来实现。

2. 新增硬盘分区,走入误区

我现在外接了两块SATA 7200转硬盘,分为都是1T的。重新计算机可以看硬盘信息。


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904892927   976222208    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

两块硬盘,分别挂载到了/dev/sdb1,/dev/sdb2。下面我们对/dev/sdb2硬盘进行处理。

/dev/sdb2还没有进行分区。


~ fdisk -l /dev/sdb2

Disk /dev/sdb2: 999.7 GB, 999651540992 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121534 cylinders, total 1952444416 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb2 doesn't contain a valid partition table

注意下面是进入误区的思考:

对sdb2进行磁盘分区规划:


/         50G
/extends  750G
  /ext1   150G
  /ext2   150G
  /ext3   150G
  /ext4   150G
  /ext5   150G

开始进行分区


~ sudo fdisk  /dev/sdb2
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x6e28e6e6.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

创建第一个基本分区/,大小为50G, 50*1024*1024*1024/512+2048=104859648


Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
Using default value 1
First sector (2048-1952444415, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-1952444415, default 1952444415): 104859648

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb2: 999.7 GB, 999651540992 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121534 cylinders, total 1952444416 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x44198dad

     Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb2p1            2048   104859648    52428800+  83  Linux

创建第二个扩充分区750G,750*1024*1024*1024/512+104859648=1677723648


Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): e
Partition number (1-4, default 2):
Using default value 2
First sector (104859649-1952444415, default 104859649):
Using default value 104859649
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (104859649-1952444415, default 1952444415): 1677723648

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb2: 999.7 GB, 999651540992 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121534 cylinders, total 1952444416 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x44198dad

     Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb2p1            2048   104859648    52428800+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p2       104859649  1677723648   786432000    5  Extended

创建逻辑分区1, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+104861697=419434497


Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (1 primary, 1 extended, 2 free)
   l   logical (numbered from 5)
Select (default p): l
Adding logical partition 5
First sector (104861697-1677723648, default 104861697):
Using default value 104861697
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (104861697-1677723648, default 1677723648): 419434497

创建逻辑分区2, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+419436546=734009346
创建逻辑分区3, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+734009346=1048582146
创建逻辑分区4, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+1048582146=1363154946
创建逻辑分区5, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+1363154946=1677723648

查看分区结果


Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb2: 999.7 GB, 999651540992 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121534 cylinders, total 1952444416 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x44198dad

     Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb2p1            2048   104859648    52428800+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p2       104859649  1677723648   786432000    5  Extended
/dev/sdb2p5       104861697   419434497   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p6       419436546   734009346   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p7       734011395  1048582146   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p8      1048584195  1363154946   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p9      1363156995  1677723648   157283327   83  Linux

退出保存


Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 22: Invalid argument.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.

更新内核分区表
不用重启系统,更新内核分区表

sudo partprobe

用fdisk查看新建的分区


~ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904892927   976222208    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

这个时候,相信大家已经发现问题了,新建的分区完全没有生效。

对硬盘sdb2使用fdisk查看分区


~ fdisk -l /dev/sdb2

Disk /dev/sdb2: 999.7 GB, 999651540992 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121534 cylinders, total 1952444416 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x44198dad

     Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb2p1            2048   104859648    52428800+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p2       104859649  1677723648   786432000    5  Extended
/dev/sdb2p5       104861697   419434497   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p6       419436546   734009346   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p7       734011395  1048582146   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p8      1048584195  1363154946   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb2p9      1363156995  1677723648   157283327   83  Linux

为什么会这样的?网上查了一下,一些朋友也遇到了这样的情况。他们把sdb2p1的这种分区叫做子分区subpartition。

操作系统不明白,为什么要在sdb2的分区上再创建sdb2p1子分区。但当时我也不明白,如果我想把一块新的硬盘分区后再使用应该如何进行。其实,这种纠结的想法,原于对操作系统的不了解,导致了明白的人不会出现这种错误,出现这种错误的人找不到明白的解释。

跳出子分区的概念,我们应该如何操作呢!

3. 完成对新增硬盘分区及挂载

上面的错误在于,我们不应该对/dev/sdb2硬盘分区,而是对/dev/sdb进行分区。


Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904892927   976222208    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

操作系统已经把两块新增加的硬盘,识别为了/dev/sdb,这个时候我们只需要删除原有的/dev/sdb2基本分区,重建为扩充分区,然后再按要求做逻辑分区就可以了。

删除sdb2分区,重建为扩充分区/dev/sdb2


~ sudo fdisk /dev/sdb
Command (m for help): d
Partition number (1-4): 2

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): e
Partition number (1-4, default 2):
Using default value 2
First sector (1952448512-3904897023, default 1952448512):
Using default value 1952448512
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (1952448512-3904897023, default 3904897023):
Using default value 3904897023

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended

重新规划分区:

创建逻辑分区1, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+1952450560=2267023360
创建逻辑分区2, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+2267023360=2581596160
创建逻辑分区3, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+2581596160=2896168960
创建逻辑分区4, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+2896168960=3210741760
创建逻辑分区5, 150G, 150*1024*1024*1024/512+3210741760=3525314560
创建逻辑分区6, 189G, 剩余空间


Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5      1952450560  2267023360   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb6      2267025409  2581596160   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb7      2581598209  2896168960   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb8      2896171009  3210741760   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb9      3210743809  3525314560   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb10     3525316609  3904897023   189790207+  83  Linux

保存退出


Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.

更新内核分区表
sudo partprobe

查看新建的分区

ls /dev/sdb
sdb    sdb1   sdb10  sdb2   sdb5   sdb6   sdb7   sdb8   sdb9

格式化分区


sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb5
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb6
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb7
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb8
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb9
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb10

挂载分区


~ sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb5 /disk/sdb5
~ ls /disk/sdb5
lost+found

查看最终的分区效果


cos@delta:~$ sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for cos:

Disk /dev/sda: 299.4 GB, 299439751168 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36404 cylinders, total 584843264 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000efd7c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048    97656831    48827392   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2        97656832   136718335    19530752   83  Linux
/dev/sda3       136718336   214843335    39062500   83  Linux
/dev/sda4   *   214843392   215037951       97280   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1999.3 GB, 1999307276288 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243068 cylinders, total 3904897024 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf919a976

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048  1952448511   976223232    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2      1952448512  3904897023   976224256    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5      1952450560  2267023360   157286400+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb6      2267025409  2581596160   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb7      2581598209  2896168960   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb8      2896171009  3210741760   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb9      3210743809  3525314560   157285376   83  Linux
/dev/sdb10     3525316609  3904897023   189790207+  83  Linux

完成对/dev/sdb2硬盘的分区操作。

希望帮助和我一样走入到误区的朋友吧。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/linux-fdisk/

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