以太坊测试区块链环境搭建

比特币吸金之道系列文章,由计算机黑客发明的网络货币,无国界,无政府,无中心。没有政府滥发货币,没有通货膨胀。在全球计算机网络中,自由的实现货币兑换和流通。

本系列文章只讲程序和策略,不谈挖矿…

关于作者:

  • 张丹(Conan), 程序员/Quant: Java,R,Nodejs
  • blog: http://blog.fens.me
  • email: bsspirit@gmail.com

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/bitcoin-geth-testnet

前言

以太坊(ETH)的出现开启了区块链的2.0时代,要进行ETH的开发和测试,我们先要搭建起来ETH的测试区块链网络。在测试环境中,我们可以直接通过参数配置,生成创世区块,设置挖矿难度,设置gas消耗,执行转账交易,定义智能合约等的操作。

目录

  1. 搭建测试区块链
  2. 开发挖矿
  3. 第一笔转账
  4. 多节点网络

1. 搭建测试区块链

由于在以太坊公链上做任何操作,都需要消耗以太币(eth),对于开发者来说,很有必要在本地自行搭建一个测试区块链网络,进行智能合约的开发,最后再将开发好的合约部署到公链上。私有区块链不同于以太坊公链,给我们很多的自由度,直接可能通过参数配置,生成创世区块,设置挖矿难度,设置gas消耗,执行转账交易,定义智能合约等的操作,这些都需要我们手动进行设置。

私有区块链的搭建,也是基于geth客户端来完成的,geth的安装过程,请参考文章 geth以太坊节点安装

下面,我们就用geth客户端,开始搭建测试区块链。创建测试节点的文件存储目录。


> mkdir /data0/eth-test/
> cd /data0/eth-test/

新建配置文件genesis.json


> vi genesis.json
{
 "nonce": "0x0000000000000042",
 "timestamp": "0x0",
 "parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
 "mixhash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
 "extraData": "0x",
 "gasLimit": "0x80000000",
 "difficulty": "0x3",
 "coinbase": "0x3333333333333333333333333333333333333333",
 "config":{
    "chainId": 55,
    "homesteadBlock": 0,
    "eip155Block": 0
 },
 "alloc": {}
}

参数设置:

  • nonce:64位随机数,用于挖矿
  • timestamp:创世块的时间戳
  • parentHash:上一个区块的hash值,因为是创世块,所以这个值是0
  • mixhash:与 nonce 配合用于挖矿,由上一个区块的一部分生成的 hash。
  • extraData:附加信息,任意填写
  • gasLimit :对GAS的消耗总量限制,用来限制区块能包含的交易信息总和,因为我们就测试链,所以随意填写。
  • difficulty:难度值,越大越难
  • coinbase:矿工账号,第一个区块挖出后将给这个矿工账号发送奖励的以太币。
  • alloc: 预设账号以及账号的以太币数量,测试链挖矿比较容易可以不配置
  • chainId 指定了独立的区块链网络 ID,不同 ID 网络的节点无法互相连接。

初始化区块链,生成创世区块和初始状态。


> geth --datadir=/data0/eth-test init /data0/eth-test/genesis.json
INFO [06-26|08:10:32.943749] Maximum peer count                       ETH=25 LES=0 total=25
INFO [06-26|08:10:32.944172] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/data0/eth-test/geth/chaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [06-26|08:10:32.989586] Persisted trie from memory database      nodes=0 size=0.00B time=3.877µs gcnodes=0 gcsize=0.00B gctime=0s livenodes=1 livesize=0.00B
INFO [06-26|08:10:32.989983] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=chaindata                      hash=4a306e…543a63
INFO [06-26|08:10:32.990028] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/data0/eth-test/geth/lightchaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [06-26|08:10:33.036685] Persisted trie from memory database      nodes=0 size=0.00B time=3.258µs gcnodes=0 gcsize=0.00B gctime=0s livenodes=1 livesize=0.00B
INFO [06-26|08:10:33.037027] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=lightchaindata                      hash=4a306e…543a63

运行日志,包括了允许最大点对点连接当前节点数为total=25,普通节点连接数ETH=25,LES轻节点连接数0。数据库存储的目录在 /data0/eth-test/geth/chaindata ,当前存活的节点 livenodes=1。

参数说明

  • datadir, 设置当前区块链网络数据存放的位置
  • init,初始化,生成创世区块

接下来,启动测试节点,并进入 geth 命令行界面。


> geth --identity "TestNode" --rpc --rpcport "8545" --datadir=/data0/eth-test --port "30303" --nodiscover console
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.916738] Maximum peer count                       ETH=25 LES=0 total=25
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.918148] Starting peer-to-peer node               instance=Geth/TestNode/v1.8.12-unstable-f1986f86/linux-amd64/go1.10.3
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.918235] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/data0/eth-test/geth/chaindata cache=768 handles=512
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.979836] Initialised chain configuration          config="{ChainID: 55 Homestead: 0 DAO:  DAOSupport: false EIP150:  EIP155: 0 EIP158:  Byzantium:  Constantinople:  Engine: unknown}"
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.979915] Disk storage enabled for ethash caches   dir=/data0/eth-test/geth/ethash count=3
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.979943] Disk storage enabled for ethash DAGs     dir=/root/.ethash               count=2
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.980023] Initialising Ethereum protocol           versions="[63 62]" network=1
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.980566] Loaded most recent local header          number=0 hash=4a306e…543a63 td=3
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.980634] Loaded most recent local full block      number=0 hash=4a306e…543a63 td=3
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.980662] Loaded most recent local fast block      number=0 hash=4a306e…543a63 td=3
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.980842] Regenerated local transaction journal    transactions=0 accounts=0
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.981818] Starting P2P networking 
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.982303] RLPx listener up                         self="enode://15653a443e91b04040fe2731e0a0fa556a1d050580fa587110b17460cf471a8c3b42ac08dbc3d84a404f8c102ae35b28d9e2c1b9f2eae4c828a0dfa21c1f2117@[::]:30303?discport=0"
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.985029] IPC endpoint opened                      url=/data0/eth-test/geth.ipc
INFO [06-26|08:14:00.985503] HTTP endpoint opened                     url=http://127.0.0.1:8545    cors= vhosts=localhost
Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/TestNode/v1.8.12-unstable-f1986f86/linux-amd64/go1.10.3
 modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0

> 
  • identity, 自定义的节点名字
  • rpc , 允许 HTTP-RPC 访问
  • rpcport , HTTP_RPC的访问端口,默认为8545
  • port , 网络监听端口,默认为30303
  • datadir, 设置当前区块链网络数据存放的位置
  • console, 启动命令行模式,可以在Geth中执行命令
  • nodiscover, 私有链地址,不会被网上看到

这样我们就把一个测试网络启动起来了,由于是单节点,网络没有其他的节点,所以并没有直接的数据输出。

2. 开始挖矿

接下来,我们在自己搭建的私有网络中,开始做常规ETH的操作。

2.1 创建账号

创建一个新账号,密码为123456,账号的地址为:0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467。


> personal.newAccount("123456")
"0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467"

另一种方式,生成一个新账号。


> personal.newAccount()
Passphrase: 
Repeat passphrase: 
"0x762a2e28c5dbab9cd31369db5f3cbb48f421c0e3"

查看所有账号


> eth.accounts
["0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467", "0x762a2e28c5dbab9cd31369db5f3cbb48f421c0e3"]

2.2 挖矿

接下来,我们开始挖矿。挖矿,就是产生以太币的过程。之前在genesis.json文件中,设置的difficulty=3,挖矿难比较低,很快就是挖出以太币来。


# 开始挖矿
> miner.start(1)
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.086688] Updated mining threads                   threads=1
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.086828] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=18000000000

# 矿工账号:如果有多个账户的情况下,挖矿获得的eth,会自动计入第一账户中。
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.086887] Etherbase automatically configured       address=0x9cac40F650E2CBE459dcb32c7c23103497134467   
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.087015] Starting mining operation 

# 开始探索新区块,没有交易内容
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.087793] Commit new mining work                   number=1 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=659.441µs            

# 成功发现新区块
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.451612] Successfully sealed new block            number=1 hash=c120d3…23dad2                          

#  确认挖到新区块
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.452182] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=1 hash=c120d3…23dad2                      
INFO [06-26|08:19:58.45237] Commit new mining work                   number=2 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=165.519µs
INFO [06-26|08:20:00.683558] Successfully sealed new block            number=2 hash=011b1c…100594
INFO [06-26|08:20:00.68399] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=2 hash=011b1c…100594
INFO [06-26|08:20:00.684181] Commit new mining work                   number=3 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=111.601µs
INFO [06-26|08:20:09.965339] Successfully sealed new block            number=3 hash=173ea5…c059ef
INFO [06-26|08:20:09.965789] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=3 hash=173ea5…c059ef
INFO [06-26|08:20:09.966091] Commit new mining work                   number=4 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=246.371µs
INFO [06-26|08:20:11.622999] Successfully sealed new block            number=4 hash=56240d…0910a3

// 省略

INFO [06-26|08:20:16.264066] Commit new mining work                   number=10 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=155.89µs
INFO [06-26|08:20:16.466436] Successfully sealed new block            number=10 hash=819037…fbcd88
INFO [06-26|08:20:16.466774] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=5  hash=7f1015…f53c57
INFO [06-26|08:20:16.466794] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=10 hash=819037…fbcd88
INFO [06-26|08:20:16.466965] Commit new mining work                   number=11 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=92.726µs

# 停止挖矿
> miner.stop()
true

开始挖了几秒,就产生了10个区块。查看账户资金为50000000000000000000 wei。第一个账户为矿工账号,第二个账户是一个普通账号。


> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
50000000000000000000
> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
0

由于Wei是最小的单位,我们把Wei转换为ether为单位,比较好看,就是为 50 ether = 50000000000000000000/10^18


> web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0]), "ether")
50

转换单位

  • Wei = 10^0 Wei
  • Ada = 10^3 Wei
  • Babbage = 10^6 Wei
  • Shannon = 10^9 Weiv
  • Szabo = 10^12 Wei
  • Finney = 10^15 Wei
  • Ether = 10^18 Wei
  • Einstein = 10^21 Wei
  • Douglas = 10^42 Wei

2.3 查看区块高度

下一步,我们查看一下区块高度,并分析一下区块的细节。


# 查看区块高度
> eth.blockNumber
10

# 查看第10个区块的细节
> eth.getBlock(10)
{
  difficulty: 131648,
  extraData: "0xd88301080c846765746888676f312e31302e33856c696e7578",
  gasLimit: 2126604064,
  gasUsed: 0,
  hash: "0x819037bcc65eb789eca82fcc3d6c686852ab8297df6396cffa6cfffeaffbcd88",
  logsBloom: "0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  miner: "0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467",
  mixHash: "0x311cd5ef45d9295d8c1b1b8778fb05b0e49dc6cae5971763c2e2d7e3d20bd895",
  nonce: "0x0b1aae8070cdff77",
  number: 10,
  parentHash: "0x1c5609a70d36a460234b95116fcc391e49890c5082af41d8cba3b5b366aa0028",
  receiptsRoot: "0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421",
  sha3Uncles: "0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347",
  size: 537,
  stateRoot: "0x0917e990c98b3daf316d0d38a4a2eefd0ad30436bab8ae61adb1ca24723eea81",
  timestamp: 1529972416,
  totalDifficulty: 1313603,
  transactions: [],
  transactionsRoot: "0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421",
  uncles: []
}

第10个区块为当前的最后一个区块,挖矿难度difficulty=131648,没有交易gasUsed=0,当前块的hash值hash: “0x819037bcc65eb789eca82fcc3d6c686852ab8297df6396cffa6cfffeaffbcd88”,,上一个块的地址parentHash: “0x819037bcc65eb789eca82fcc3d6c686852ab8297df6396cffa6cfffeaffbcd88”,矿工账号miner: “0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467”,区块高度number=10。

3. 第一笔转账

接下来,让我完成第一笔转账。从矿工账号转账30ether到第二个账号。


> eth.sendTransaction({from:eth.accounts[0],to:eth.accounts[1],value:web3.toWei(30,"ether")})
Error: authentication needed: password or unlock
    at web3.js:3143:20
    at web3.js:6347:15
    at web3.js:5081:36
    at :1:1

第一次,执行转账操作时,出现错误。需要把转输eth的账号进行解锁,才能转账。


# 解锁账号
> personal.unlockAccount(eth.accounts[0])
Unlock account 0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467
Passphrase: 
true

# 再次转账
> eth.sendTransaction({from:eth.accounts[0],to:eth.accounts[1],value:web3.toWei(30,"ether")})
INFO [06-26|08:26:44.060461] Submitted transaction                    fullhash=0x8d6d1eb3c1c82be1f419d8f772048644361c41362fd8de27f8252470f975d6bb recipient=0x762A2e28C5DbaB9cD31369DB5f3CBB48f421C0E3
"0x8d6d1eb3c1c82be1f419d8f772048644361c41362fd8de27f8252470f975d6bb"

交易日志,交易的hash值fullhash=0x8d6d1eb3c1c82be1f419d8f772048644361c41362fd8de27f8252470f975d6bb,收款账号recipient=0x762A2e28C5DbaB9cD31369DB5f3CBB48f421C0E3。

我们提交了第一笔的转账,查看2个账户的余额。


> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
50000000000000000000
> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
0

账户的余额并没有发生变化,这是因为基于区块链的转账操作需要矿工确认才能完成,矿工确认的过程是要经过挖矿的。我们的转账的操作的任务已经提交,但是交易并未完成,还需要矿工挖矿提交新的区块,在区块中加入这次转账交易,提交新的区块全网的节点(按百分比算,具体还没细看源代码)确认完成后,交易才正式生效。

由于链上只有我们自己,我们要重新开起挖矿程序。


# 开始挖矿
> miner.start(1)
INFO [06-26|08:27:24.712255] Updated mining threads                   threads=1
INFO [06-26|08:27:24.712434] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=18000000000
INFO [06-26|08:27:24.712617] Starting mining operation 

# 探索新的区块,包含一个操作信息txs=1
INFO [06-26|08:27:24.713512] Commit new mining work                   number=11 txs=1 uncles=0 elapsed=808.72µs
INFO [06-26|08:27:27.638518] Successfully sealed new block            number=11 hash=68495b…35d4fe
INFO [06-26|08:27:27.638986] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=6  hash=3617e8…0dd7f5
INFO [06-26|08:27:27.639006] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=11 hash=68495b…35d4fe
INFO [06-26|08:27:27.639245] Commit new mining work                   number=12 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=227.705µs
INFO [06-26|08:27:28.199602] Successfully sealed new block            number=12 hash=96fd37…37c016
INFO [06-26|08:27:28.199963] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=7  hash=a8d6d5…e6036d
INFO [06-26|08:27:28.19998] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=12 hash=96fd37…37c016
INFO [06-26|08:27:28.200427] Commit new mining work                   number=13 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=276.033µs
INFO [06-26|08:27:29.766971] Successfully sealed new block            number=13 hash=a13201…c051c8
INFO [06-26|08:27:29.767429] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=8  hash=16222d…7a9445
INFO [06-26|08:27:29.767447] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=13 hash=a13201…c051c8
INFO [06-26|08:27:29.767572] Commit new mining work                   number=14 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=110.439µs
INFO [06-26|08:27:30.302882] Successfully sealed new block            number=14 hash=e1ab15…e44665
INFO [06-26|08:27:30.303213] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=9  hash=1c5609…aa0028
INFO [06-26|08:27:30.303243] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=14 hash=e1ab15…e44665
INFO [06-26|08:27:30.303471] Commit new mining work                   number=15 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=114.85µs
INFO [06-26|08:27:35.685475] Successfully sealed new block            number=15 hash=e1b5a4…1bab9e
INFO [06-26|08:27:35.686032] 🔗 block reached canonical chain          number=10 hash=819037…fbcd88
INFO [06-26|08:27:35.686146] 🔨 mined potential block                  number=15 hash=e1b5a4…1bab9e
INFO [06-26|08:27:35.686523] Commit new mining work                   number=16 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=294.263µs

# 停止挖矿
> miner.stop()
true

在高度number=11的区块上,我们发现了有一笔转账信息。再次,查看账户余额,发现账户余额发生了变化。


> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
45000000000000000000
> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
30000000000000000000

第一个账户变成了 45 ether,第二个账号变成了30 ether。第二个账户余额,正是我们之前设定的转账金额。


# 查看当前块的高度
> eth.blockNumber
15

# 第11个区块的细节
> eth.getBlock(11)
  difficulty: 131072,
  extraData: "0xd88301080c846765746888676f312e31302e33856c696e7578",
  gasLimit: 2124527304,
  gasUsed: 21000,
  hash: "0x68495bf329e886a8043d1af74d145a870ae6aa2d4e42134499b3730e5c35d4fe",
  logsBloom: "0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  miner: "0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467",
  mixHash: "0xbbf5053e0409cded11f0c8f1059cad389d366723cb2f6c077d6c71c36d31a254",
  nonce: "0x3cc35610dc92f143",
  number: 11,
  parentHash: "0x819037bcc65eb789eca82fcc3d6c686852ab8297df6396cffa6cfffeaffbcd88",
  receiptsRoot: "0x170861bbc9f17f29b4c8ef046f44fa7435c3ad3a54e752591c87050345c29d31",
  sha3Uncles: "0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347",
  size: 653,
  stateRoot: "0x6e44fbe836ebf62523a37bbbb1beaad0c0802be9ff5c4e7b19c16a1eb4c50112",
  timestamp: 1529972844,
  totalDifficulty: 1444675,
  transactions: ["0x8d6d1eb3c1c82be1f419d8f772048644361c41362fd8de27f8252470f975d6bb"],
  transactionsRoot: "0x98881bb99ed82df9a69726705fb2ac2d1371e9ba992c52ed3b4cd3ee50762d38",
  uncles: []
}

第11个区块发生了交易,消耗的gas手续费为gasUsed=21000 Wei,交易一共发生1笔transactions=0x8d6d1eb3c1c82be1f419d8f772048644361c41362fd8de27f8252470f975d6bb,矿工账号miner: “0x9cac40f650e2cbe459dcb32c7c23103497134467″。

总结一下,本文介绍了如何搭建以太坊的私有节点,实现了挖矿的过程,并完了2个账户的第一笔转账操作。下一篇文章,找我了解智能合约的编写。

转载请注明出处:
http://blog.fens.me/bitcoin-geth-testnet

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